§110.6. English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 4, Adopted 2017.
(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.
(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.
(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.
(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.
(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).
(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).
(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.
(b) Knowledge and skills.
(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:
(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and make pertinent comments;
(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of action;
(C) express an opinion supported by accurate information, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and
(D) work collaboratively with others to develop a plan of shared responsibilities.
(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:
(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:
(i) decoding words with specific orthographic patterns and rules, including regular and irregular plurals;
(ii) decoding multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;
(iii) decoding words using advanced knowledge of syllable division patterns such as VV;
(iv) decoding words using knowledge of prefixes;
(v) decoding words using knowledge of suffixes, including how they can change base words such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants; and
(vi) identifying and reading high-frequency words from a research-based list;
(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:
(i) spelling multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;
(ii) spelling homophones;
(iii) spelling multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns;
(iv) spelling words using advanced knowledge of syllable division patterns;
(v) spelling words using knowledge of prefixes; and
(vi) spelling words using knowledge of suffixes, including how they can change base words such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants; and
(C) write legibly in cursive to complete assignments.
(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:
(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning, syllabication, and pronunciation;
(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple-meaning words;
(C) determine the meaning of and use words with affixes such as mis-, sub-, -ment, and -ity/ty and roots such as auto, graph, and meter; and
(D) identify, use, and explain the meaning of homophones such as reign/rain.
(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.
(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.
(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:
(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;
(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;
(C) make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;
(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;
(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;
(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;
(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;
(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and
(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.
(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:
(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;
(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing and contrasting ideas across a variety of sources;
(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;
(D) retell, paraphrase, or summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;
(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;
(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate; and
(G) discuss specific ideas in the text that are important to the meaning.
(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:
(A) infer basic themes supported by text evidence;
(B) explain the interactions of the characters and the changes they undergo;
(C) analyze plot elements, including the rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution; and
(D) explain the influence of the setting, including historical and cultural settings, on the plot.
(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:
(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, legends, myths, and tall tales;
(B) explain figurative language such as simile, metaphor, and personification that the poet uses to create images;
(C) explain structure in drama such as character tags, acts, scenes, and stage directions;
(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:
(i) the central idea with supporting evidence;
(ii) features such as pronunciation guides and diagrams to support understanding; and
(iii) organizational patterns such as compare and contrast;
(E) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:
(i) identifying the claim;
(ii) explaining how the author has used facts for an argument; and
(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and
(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.
(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:
(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;
(B) explain how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;
(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;
(D) describe how the author's use of imagery, literal and figurative language such as simile and metaphor, and sound devices such as alliteration and assonance achieves specific purposes;
(E) identify and understand the use of literary devices, including first- or third-person point of view;
(F) discuss how the author's use of language contributes to voice; and
(G) identify and explain the use of anecdote.
(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:
(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping;
(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:
(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, and a conclusion; and
(ii) developing an engaging idea with relevant details;
(C) revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity;
(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:
(i) complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;
(ii) past tense of irregular verbs;
(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns;
(iv) adjectives, including their comparative and superlative forms;
(v) adverbs that convey frequency and adverbs that convey degree;
(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases;
(vii) pronouns, including reflexive;
(viii) coordinating conjunctions to form compound subjects, predicates, and sentences;
(ix) capitalization of historical periods, events, and documents; titles of books; stories and essays; and languages, races, and nationalities;
(x) punctuation marks, including apostrophes in possessives, commas in compound sentences, and quotation marks in dialogue; and
(xi) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words; and
(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.
(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:
(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;
(B) compose informational texts, including brief compositions that convey information about a topic, using a clear central idea and genre characteristics and craft;
(C) compose argumentative texts, including opinion essays, using genre characteristics and craft; and
(D) compose correspondence that requests information.
(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:
(A) generate and clarify questions on a topic for formal and informal inquiry;
(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;
(C) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;
(D) identify primary and secondary sources;
(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;
(F) recognize the difference between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;
(G) develop a bibliography; and
(H) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.
Source: The provisions of this §110.6 adopted to be effective September 25, 2017, 42 TexReg 4999.